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Why Nations Fail

Author : Daron Acemoglu,James A. Robinson
Publisher : Currency
Release : 2013-09-17
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 9780307719225
File Size : 29,8 Mb
Total Download : 462


Book Summary: Brilliant and engagingly written, Why Nations Fail answers the question that has stumped the experts for centuries: Why are some nations rich and others poor, divided by wealth and poverty, health and sickness, food and famine? Is it culture, the weather, geography? Perhaps ignorance of what the right policies are? Simply, no. None of these factors is either definitive or destiny. Otherwise, how to explain why Botswana has become one of the fastest growing countries in the world, while other African nations, such as Zimbabwe, the Congo, and Sierra Leone, are mired in poverty and violence? Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson conclusively show that it is man-made political and economic institutions that underlie economic success (or lack of it). Korea, to take just one of their fascinating examples, is a remarkably homogeneous nation, yet the people of North Korea are among the poorest on earth while their brothers and sisters in South Korea are among the richest. The south forged a society that created incentives, rewarded innovation, and allowed everyone to participate in economic opportunities. The economic success thus spurred was sustained because the government became accountable and responsive to citizens and the great mass of people. Sadly, the people of the north have endured decades of famine, political repression, and very different economic institutions—with no end in sight. The differences between the Koreas is due to the politics that created these completely different institutional trajectories. Based on fifteen years of original research Acemoglu and Robinson marshall extraordinary historical evidence from the Roman Empire, the Mayan city-states, medieval Venice, the Soviet Union, Latin America, England, Europe, the United States, and Africa to build a new theory of political economy with great relevance for the big questions of today, including: - China has built an authoritarian growth machine. Will it continue to grow at such high speed and overwhelm the West? - Are America’s best days behind it? Are we moving from a virtuous circle in which efforts by elites to aggrandize power are resisted to a vicious one that enriches and empowers a small minority? - What is the most effective way to help move billions of people from the rut of poverty to prosperity? More philanthropy from the wealthy nations of the West? Or learning the hard-won lessons of Acemoglu and Robinson’s breakthrough ideas on the interplay between inclusive political and economic institutions? Why Nations Fail will change the way you look at—and understand—the world.

The Narrow Corridor

Author : Daron Acemoglu,James A. Robinson
Publisher : Penguin
Release : 2019-09-24
Category : Political Science
ISBN : 9780735224391
File Size : 23,9 Mb
Total Download : 578


Book Summary: "Why is it so difficult to develop and sustain liberal democracy? The best recent work on this subject comes from a remarkable pair of scholars, Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson. In their latest book, The Narrow Corridor, they have answered this question with great insight." -Fareed Zakaria, The Washington Post From the authors of the international bestseller Why Nations Fail, a crucial new big-picture framework that answers the question of how liberty flourishes in some states but falls to authoritarianism or anarchy in others--and explains how it can continue to thrive despite new threats. In Why Nations Fail, Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson argued that countries rise and fall based not on culture, geography, or chance, but on the power of their institutions. In their new book, they build a new theory about liberty and how to achieve it, drawing a wealth of evidence from both current affairs and disparate threads of world history. Liberty is hardly the "natural" order of things. In most places and at most times, the strong have dominated the weak and human freedom has been quashed by force or by customs and norms. Either states have been too weak to protect individuals from these threats, or states have been too strong for people to protect themselves from despotism. Liberty emerges only when a delicate and precarious balance is struck between state and society. There is a Western myth that political liberty is a durable construct, arrived at by a process of "enlightenment." This static view is a fantasy, the authors argue. In reality, the corridor to liberty is narrow and stays open only via a fundamental and incessant struggle between state and society: The authors look to the American Civil Rights Movement, Europe’s early and recent history, the Zapotec civilization circa 500 BCE, and Lagos’s efforts to uproot corruption and institute government accountability to illustrate what it takes to get and stay in the corridor. But they also examine Chinese imperial history, colonialism in the Pacific, India’s caste system, Saudi Arabia’s suffocating cage of norms, and the “Paper Leviathan” of many Latin American and African nations to show how countries can drift away from it, and explain the feedback loops that make liberty harder to achieve. Today we are in the midst of a time of wrenching destabilization. We need liberty more than ever, and yet the corridor to liberty is becoming narrower and more treacherous. The danger on the horizon is not "just" the loss of our political freedom, however grim that is in itself; it is also the disintegration of the prosperity and safety that critically depend on liberty. The opposite of the corridor of liberty is the road to ruin.

Pillars of Prosperity

Author : Timothy Besley,Torsten Persson
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2011-08-28
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 9780691152684
File Size : 25,9 Mb
Total Download : 128


Book Summary: How nations can promote peace, prosperity, and stability through cohesive political institutions "Little else is required to carry a state to the highest degree of opulence from the lowest barbarism, but peace, easy taxes, and a tolerable administration of justice; all the rest being brought about by the natural course of things." So wrote Adam Smith a quarter of a millennium ago. Using the tools of modern political economics and combining economic theory with a bird's-eye view of the data, this book reinterprets Smith's pillars of prosperity to explain the existence of development clusters—places that tend to combine effective state institutions, the absence of political violence, and high per-capita incomes. To achieve peace, the authors stress the avoidance of repressive government and civil conflict. Easy taxes, they argue, refers not to low taxes, but a tax system with widespread compliance that collects taxes at a reasonable cost from a broad base, like income. And a tolerable administration of justice is about legal infrastructure that can support the enforcement of contracts and property rights in line with the rule of law. The authors show that countries tend to enjoy all three pillars of prosperity when they have evolved cohesive political institutions that promote common interests, guaranteeing the provision of public goods. In line with much historical research, international conflict has also been an important force behind effective states by fostering common interests. The absence of common interests and/or cohesive political institutions can explain the existence of very different development clusters in fragile states that are plagued by poverty, violence, and weak state capacity.

Why Latin American Nations Fail

Author : Matías Vernengo,Esteban Pérez Caldentey
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release : 2017-10-03
Category : History
ISBN : 9780520964525
File Size : 44,8 Mb
Total Download : 115


Book Summary: The question of development is a major topic in courses across the social sciences and history, particularly those focused on Latin America. Many scholars and instructors have tried to pinpoint, explain, and define the problem of underdevelopment in the region. With new ideas have come new strategies that by and large have failed to explain or reduce income disparity and relieve poverty in the region. Why Latin American Nations Fail brings together leading Latin Americanists from several disciplines to address the topic of how and why contemporary development strategies have failed to curb rampant poverty and underdevelopment throughout the region. Given the dramatic political turns in contemporary Latin America, this book offers a much-needed explanation and analysis of the factors that are key to making sense of development today.

Summary of Why Nations Fail

Author : Instaread
Publisher : Instaread
Release : 2016-09-25
Category : Study Aids
ISBN : 9781683785071
File Size : 22,8 Mb
Total Download : 365


Book Summary:

Why Nations Fail. Key Arguments and Empirical Support of the Theories

Author : Johannes Simon
Publisher : GRIN Verlag
Release : 2019-06-25
Category : Political Science
ISBN : 9783668965324
File Size : 32,9 Mb
Total Download : 755


Book Summary: Essay from the year 2018 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics, University of Göttingen, language: English, abstract: “An estimated 766 million people, or 10.7 percent of the world’s population, lived in extreme poverty in 2013.” (World Bank 2017, p. 1) As if these numbers itself weren’t enough sign of the great inequality in incomes after centuries of prosperity, following the World Income Indicators, more than half of the people living under these circumstances originate from one region, Sub-Saharan-Africa. Maybe as long as growth has been observable, controversies about the causes and its inherent erratic distribution flourished. Over time, many hypotheses have been proposed, discussed and rejected. Two of the ones that managed to establish themselves are subject of this essay. More specifically, what their key arguments and empirical support are. One the one hand, the institutional theory of growth promoted most notably by Acemoglu and fellows (2012; 2005). On the other hand the geographic theory of growth, proposed by Sachs et al. (1998; 1999). Plan of the essay is as follows. Chapter II will describe the institutional theory of growth as described in Acemoglu and Robinson (2012). Chapter III assesses the key factors and their empirical support of the institutional and geographic growth hypotheses respectively. Followed by Chapter IV, which gives insight on surrounding literature. Chapter V discusses the main problems of each line of argument, concluding that the institutional model offers more consistency.

21st Century Economics

Author : Bruno S. Frey,Christoph A. Schaltegger
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-09
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 9783030177409
File Size : 30,8 Mb
Total Download : 265


Book Summary: Economics is a science that can contribute substantial powerful and fresh insights! This book collects essays by leading academics that evaluate the scholarly importance of contemporary economic ideas and concepts, thus providing valuable knowledge about the present state of economics and its progress. This compilation of short essays helps readers interested in economics to identify 21st century economic ideas that should be read and remembered. The authors state their personal opinion on what matters most in contemporary economics and reveal its fascinating and creative sides.

13 Bankers

Author : Simon Johnson,James Kwak
Publisher : Vintage
Release : 2010-03-30
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 9780307379221
File Size : 25,8 Mb
Total Download : 468


Book Summary: In spite of its key role in creating the ruinous financial crisis of 2008, the American banking industry has grown bigger, more profitable, and more resistant to regulation than ever. Anchored by six megabanks whose assets amount to more than 60 percent of the country’s gross domestic product, this oligarchy proved it could first hold the global economy hostage and then use its political muscle to fight off meaningful reform. 13 Bankers brilliantly charts the rise to power of the financial sector and forcefully argues that we must break up the big banks if we want to avoid future financial catastrophes. Updated, with additional analysis of the government’s recent attempt to reform the banking industry, this is a timely and expert account of our troubled political economy.